aristotle tragedy

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The men of common birth are unfit for tragedies. The use of metaphors is the mark of genius, because to make good metaphors demands an eye for resemblances. This is moral but not moving. But of this enough has been said in our published treatises. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Since the aim of a tragedy is to arouse pity and fear through an alteration in the status of the central character, he must be a figure with whom the audience can identify and whose fate can trigger these emotions. Nor should evil man be shown passing from misery to prosperity. What is a Chariot? Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. Unless the conclusions of most tragedies are interpreted on this level, the reader is forced to credit the Greeks with the most primitive of moral systems. This view tends to give the "flaw" an ethical definition but relates it only to the spectators' reactions to the hero and does not increase its importance for interpreting the tragedies. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. According to Aristotle, these shifts in direction increase the tragic effect of the drama. David Hume – On the Foundations of Morals, 37. Nonetheless, the Poetics is the only critical study of Greek drama to have been made by a near-contemporary. The practice of the stage bears out our view. The Spectacle has, indeed, an emotional attraction of its own, but, of all the parts, it is the least artistic, and connected least with the art of poetry. Aristotle prefers complex plot like the plot of Oedipus Rex, by Sophocles to simple plot. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes— that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty. Elementary, perhaps, but these are the requirements for a well-constructed plot. To produce this effect, actions must happen between those who are near or dear to one another. Now as tragic imitation implies persons acting, it necessarily follows in the first place, that Spectacular equipment will be a part of Tragedy. Ce livre contient-il un contenu inapproprié ? Such a fall merely shocks us. For Tragedy is an imitation, not of men, but of an action and of life, and life consists in action, and its end is a mode of action, not a quality. According to Aristotle, there are six components of a great tragedy: plot, character, thought, verbal expression, song, and visual adornment. Merci d’essayer à nouveau. . For example, a brother killing a father leaves a more impressionable feeling than an enemy killing an enemy does. A plot should be structured so that every part is necessary for completeness. But to produce this effect by the mere spectacle is a less artistic method, and dependent on extraneous aids. compares tragedy to such other metrical forms as comedy and epic. That was the question Aristotle asked himself and his definition attempts to answer it. As an example of motiveless degradation of character, we have Menelaus in the Orestes; of character indecorous and inappropriate, the lament of Odysseus in the Scylla, and the speech of Melanippe; of inconsistency, the Iphigenia at Aulis—for Iphigenia the suppliant in no way resembles her later self. An effective plot, we are told, will be both “complete” and “complex.”  By “complete,” Aristotle refers to the order of incidents. Then comes spectacle, which surely has an emotional attraction of its own but least artistic. Now the vital question is that- what sort of ethical outlook should belong to a tragic hero? However, though the tragic hero is highly distinguished, he is not perfect. Pour signaler une violation de droits d'auteur. . As Agave participates with the ther women in tearing apart Pentheus, the chorus is horrified by the action. is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament . A tragedy, then, to be perfect according to the rules of art should be of this construction. As, therefore, in the case of animate bodies and organisms a certain magnitude is necessary, and a magnitude which may be easily embraced in one view; so in the plot, a certain length is necessary, and a length which can be easily embraced by the memory. Pentheus does not increase awareness of his actions before his downfall. These then are rules the poet should observe. The plot must be of a reasonable length, so that it may be easily held in the memory. Besides which, the most powerful elements of emotional interest in Tragedy—Peripeteia or Reversal of the Situation, and Recognition scenes—are parts of the plot. Besides, the production of spectacular effects depends more on the art of the stage machinist than on that of the poet. . Next, Song and Diction, for these are the media of imitation. The fourth point is consistency: for though the subject of the imitation, who suggested the type, be inconsistent, still he must be consistently inconsistent. Several of Aristotle's main points are of great value for an understanding of Greek tragic drama. The action may be done consciously and with knowledge of the persons, in the manner of the older poets. and any corresponding bookmarks? Thus a virtuous man whose fortune changes from prosperity to adversity will not do. The element of thought is evident in Euripides Bacchae when Pentheus returns home and sees his father and Tiresias. Aristotle – On Tragedy by Jeff McLaughlin is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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