Image of HVAR and HVAR RAM rockets mounted to a F4U. HVARs remained in the Navy's inventory until the mid-1960s. The central hole in a tubular charge makes it more difficult to extrude, requiring a softer propellant blend that also yields somewhat lower performance. F-84E Thunderjets proved to be the most capable load-lifting fighter/bombers in Korea, demonstrating an ability to loft up to 24 HVARs and 2 Tiny Tims with a combined rocket weight of 5800 pounds. The HVAR was designed by engineers at Caltech during World War II as an improvement on the 5-Inch Forward Firing Aircraft Rocket (FFAR), which had a 5 inch diameter warhead but an underpowered 3.25 inch diameter rocket motor.
The High Velocity Aircraft Rocket, or HVAR, also known by the nickname Holy Moses, was an American unguided rocket developed during World War II to attack targets on the ground from aircraft.
So, Im suggesting the introduction of the entire rocket family.
HVARs could be fired in pairs or a single rapid-fire salvo but required accurate initial alignment and careful attention to range, or at least a good instinctive sense for the range to the target. HVARs were widely used in the Korean War.
U.S. Ballistite propellant had a sea level specific impulse of over 200 seconds (2.0 km/s), compared with about 180 seconds (1.8 km/s) for the British Cordite, German WASAG and Soviet PTP propellants. Douglas AD-1 Skyraiders often carried a dozen HVARs, and sometimes an additional pair of much larger but less accurate Tiny Tim 11.75-inch (29.8 cm) rockets. Some surviving HVAR rockets were converted to training targets for pilots to practice firing AIM-9 Sidewinder infrared-guided missiles. The target rocket used a Mk.6 head with inert lead ballast and was fitted with four Mark 21 (aluminum construction) or 33 (steel) tracking flares, 10 inches long by 1 inch wide and carrying 100 grams of pyrotechnic mixture, to provide a strong IR signature for the Sidewinder to lock onto.
Unguided, typically need to fire several to ensure the target is hit, Difficult to use against moving vehicles unless at very low altitude. Twin-engine aircraft sometimes armed with HVARs included the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, North American PBJ Mitchell bomber and the Lockheed PV-2 Harpoon bomber.
Hercules Powder Company was the principal U.S. supplier of high performance extruded Ballistite propellants: 51.5% nitrocellulose, 43% nitroglycerine, 3.25% diethyl phthalate, 1.25% potassium sulfate, 1% ethyl centralite, and 0.2% carbon black. HVAR could penetrate 4 ft of reinforced concrete and was used to sink transports, knock out pillboxes and AA gun emplacements, blow up ammo and oil-storage dumps, and destroy tanks, locomotives, and bunkers. Mulvaney's Ordnance Technical Information System (MOTIS) Ordnance Technical Data Sheet TM 9-1950, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Air-to-ground rockets of the United States, World War II weapons of the United States, "EATON CANYON, A History of Rocket Motor Research and Development in the Caltech-NDRC-Navy Rocket Program, 1941-1946,", http://maji.utsi.edu/courses/09_propulsion_1/Papers/AIAA983977_Price.pdf, http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/app4/5in-rockets.html, http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=1943, Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), Submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM), Intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM), https://military.wikia.org/wiki/High_Velocity_Aircraft_Rocket?oldid=2765039, 52 inches (132 cm) long x 5 inches (12.7 cm) diameter solid propellant rocket motor, 1,375 feet per second (419 m/s) plus speed of launching aircraft. The 5 in HVAR rocket was able to pack a punch and in doing so could penetrate 4 ft of reinforced concrete and be effectively used against sinking transport ships, destroying pillboxes, ammunition dumps, tanks and railroad locomotives. The HVAR can be a tricky rocket to get on target as it is unguided, once it is fired, it will continue to fly until it either hits the target, hits the ground nearby or runs out of fuel. Im separating this into Gen 1 rockets from WW2 and Gen 2 from postwar. All rights reserved. Jets gave the fighter pilots improved forward visibility. A head assembled with a motor is known by a separate designation listed below. … Over a million HVARs were made during World War II, and production continued until 1955. This rocket can be utilised against hardened targets such as pillboxes, anti-aircraft artillery and light to medium tanks with positive results. HVAR could penetrate 4 ft of reinforced concrete and was used to sink transports, knock out pillboxes and AA gun emplacements, blow up ammo and oil-storage dumps, and destroy tanks, locomotives, and bunkers. Jets gave the fighter pilots improved forward visibility. Increasing the rocket motor's size allowed for the rocket to take on the 5 in diameter throughout the entire length of the rocket thereby increasing the propellant capacity from 8.5 lb to 23.9 lb.  The Mark 6 HE head came in two variations, Mod 0 and Mod 1. HVAR had a constant 5” diameter for both warhead and rocket motor, increasing propellant from 8.5 lb to 23.9 lb of Ballistite. The HVAR is two units, a head and motor. This went against the common practice of filling rocket motors with different numbers of smaller same-sized tubular charges with a round cavity, the number depending on motor diameter. The desire for improved accuracy from the flatter trajectory of a faster rocket spurred the rapid development. Initial WW2 HVAR warheads were modified 5"/38 caliber gun shells, with the Mk.6 head being a modification of AA Common shells and the Mk.2 being derived from Special Common rounds.
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