Bacteriuria is inevitably associated with the encrustation, so retention and vesico-ureteral reflux can induce ascending infection culminating in episodes of pyelonephritis, septicemia, and shock (9). 3 and Table 3). Bacteria such as e-coli, klebsiella, proteus, and staphylococcus all secrete a protein called urease and it is one of the mechanisms that allows them to adhere to the epithelial cells lining the urinary tract as well as other parts of the body such as the intestines. Sokhn ES, Salami A, El Roz A, Salloum L, Bahmad HF, Ghssein G. Med Sci (Basel). A random subset of 55 isolates of P. mirabilis, each from a different clinical or environmental source, were selected. A common complication in the care of patients undergoing long-term bladder catheterization is recurrent encrustation and blockage of catheters.  A highly active urease produced by P. penneri may also have a role in the establishment of an infectious process. The subset comprised 36 clinical and 19 environmental isolates, each from a distinct source (Table 2). Isolates on days 32 and 101 were from catheter biofilms, and all others were from urine specimens. If it is not dealt with, catheter blockage can lead to pyelonephritis and septicemia. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. Electron micrograph of Proteus penneri.  The resistance of P. penneri to cefuroxime and the marked inhibitory activity of cefoxitin against this species also distinguishes P. penneri from the other Proteus. Are the patients who suffer from recurrent catheter encrustation fecal carriers of the strain of P. mirabilis that forms the crystalline biofilms? Conclusion: Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/.  Pathogens have been isolated mainly from the urine of patients with abnormalities in the urinary tract, and from stool. A further potential advantage of the genotyping method is that analysis of the DNA profiles by specialized software could be used to construct dendrograms showing the relatedness of all the isolates. 2020 Jun 5;16(1):176. doi: 10.1186/s12917-020-02372-w. Resistance rates to commonly used antimicrobials among pathogens of both bacteremic and non-bacteremic community-acquired urinary tract infection. The remaining 51 were chosen at random from the collection.  These differences have been used to cluster P. penneri strains into serogroups based on their agglutinating activity when mixed with antibodies directed against specific species of LPS molecules. Comparison of PFGE typing and Dienes testing.Strain typing by PFGE is time-consuming and requires special equipment. Bar represents 200nm. 2020 Aug 13;8(3):32. doi: 10.3390/medsci8030032. Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium most noted for its swarming motility and urease activity, frequently causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) that are often polymicrobial.These infections may be accompanied by urolithiasis, the development of bladder or kidney stones due to alkalinization of urine from urease-catalyzed urea hydrolysis. An analysis of 12 clinical isolates obtained from blood, mid-stream urine samples, or wound swabs from patients in a general hospital showed 10 distinct profiles (Fig. 2020 Aug 14;10:414. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2020.00414. showed through DNA hybridization studies that P. vulgaris was a heterogenous species. Kim BN, Kim NJ, Kim MN, Kim YS, Woo JH, Ryu J. Scand J Infect Dis. Unraveling a pathway to menopausal bone loss. Description. Environmental samples were collected from river water, seawater, and sewage at a number of geographically distinct sites.
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